Foraging is part of the Oregon lifestyle. It’s exhilarating to head out on a hike—rain or shine—and return home with enough fresh berries or mushrooms bagged for a special treat. I like to think I’m walking in the steps of other gatherers—who knows how long ago.
There’s a new cookbook out that’s getting a lot of awards and buzz. The Sioux Chef’s Indigenous Kitchen is by Chef Sean Sherman who is resolved to revitalize indigenous foods and cuisine. Sean is a member of the Lakota Tribe, part of the Sioux Nation that was relocated in the last century from homelands in the Dakota and Minnesota territories to the fringe of the South Dakota Badlands. His people left behind powerful traditions and customs only to face misery and misfortune in a barren and foreign landscape.
Sean believes many other tribes have lost their cultural ties to native foods and customs, due to relocation. He and his team are busy creating and adapting new versions of indigenous cuisine based on natural and unprocessed foods, as well as promoting wild food usage and harvesting, land stewardship and farming, food preservation and cooking techniques. His cookbook offers resources and options for a new standard of traditional foods using modern techniques.
Here in the Pacific Northwest the Confederate Tribes of the Grande Ronde is on a similar path promoting their own indigenous food projects. This past weekend, in tandem with our local community college, we planted 2000 camas bulbs on the campus’s Youth Farm site.
The bulb of camas is greatly prized by tribes throughout the Pacific Northwest. Locally, the Kalapuya people consider camas their most important staple which they re-hydrate and grind into flour for breads and cakes. Common Camas, part of the lily family and related to asparagus, also has a spired stalk plus gorgeous star-like blue flowers.
Some compare the flavor of camas to that of a fig, but it is certainly not as ready to eat. The bulbs are known to contain inulin, a fiber which is indigestible until fully broken down through a long, slow cooking process. It traditionally takes 2 to 3 days of baking in a slow oven before the bulbs are fully blackened and edible; the inulin then turns to fructose and releases its inherent sweetness.
Fellow foragers should beware of Death Camas, which looks much like Common Camas, but displays white rather than blue flowers when in bloom. Also, when digging camas bulbs remember that an entire plant will be eliminated, and no further bulbs can be produced. Be selective about the variety and quantity gathered.
I’m with Sean. I salute his endeavors to improve the health and well-being of his fellow Native Americans. I intend to plant a few of my own bulbs very shortly. I hope to experiment with my own crop—whenever that happens. At this point I’ll stay in the research mode gathering cooking ideas and searching for samples. Admittedly, beyond the traditional process of roasting bulbs in a slow fire for three days, I’m open to treating them to a long rest in the slow cooker. Now, that’s a traditional/contemporary twist!
Sweet Camas Spread
From Sweet Camas Cookbook by Madrona Murphy
A mild sweet spread, reminiscent of chestnut jam. The chocolate addition is lighter and less sweet than chocolate nut spreads like Nutella
¼ cup camas paste (can be made from dried, powdered camas)
1 tablespoon water
1 tablespoon sunflower oil
1 tablespoon dutched cocoa powder (use for chocolate spread)
- Re-hydrate the dried, powered camas, as needed.
- Stir the water, oil and cocoa, if using, into the camas paste until smooth. Add more water if too stiff.
- The spread is highly perishable. Store in the refrigerator and use within a few days.
- To serve, thin with more water if unspreadable. Serve with crackers, toast, or with cheese.
You never know when good fortune will cross your path. For some time now I’ve been making my own yogurt, thanks to the ease and convenience of the ole Instant Pot. Once committed to the process, my results have become far superior to any of the usual store bought varieties. When I discovered one batch could yield two distinct styles I got even more excited: I’d have a quart of fine yogurt for daily use, plus a good supply of thick, creamy Greek yogurt worthy of cheese status.
During my early Greek yogurt period, I came across Home Cheese Making (3rd edition) by Ricki CarrolI, while browsing books at a used book sale. (Ricki has a 4th edition coming out December 2018). It looked nearly new (good/bad sign, whatever), I added it to my stack and brought it home. Several days later, I opened the book and knew this was no mistake. I haven’t met a cheese that I didn’t like, and here was an opportunity to see where all this could possibly go.
Ricki’s well laid-out book takes a complicated subject and breaks it down into manageable chunks. It’s geared to the novice as well as the skilled cheese maker, with a wide range of cheeses to consider from soft fresh cheeses like queso fresco, mozzarella, and feta, to ripened cheeses like cheddar, gouda, brie, and much more. Here, I could begin to understand and more fully appreciate the art of cheese making—and I was ready.
You can get started in cheese making with a few basic kitchen supplies. A good digital thermometer is a must, plus a colander, cheesecloth, a long spoon or spatula, the usual measuring cups and spoons, a long knife for cutting the curd, a stainless steel pot, and a reliable cooking unit that maintains a steady temperature.
Each cheese requires specific additives for its success. Some of the basics are: a starter such as yogurt, a mesophilic or thermophilic starter; liquid rennet for coagulation; calcium chloride for curd formation; lipase powder for flavor; and cheese salt.
Sourcing cheese making supplies can be a hassle, but I’ve had good luck with Ricki’s website, New England Cheese Making Supply Co. It is a reliable resource for cheese making information and supplies.
Since cheese making can be intimidating, I centered on a realistic mindset: cheese has been around for centuries, surely I can figure this out. Granted, there’s a large learning curve—at this point I’m happy mastering fresh cheeses. I’d tinkered with ricotta and mozzarella before, and I welcomed the opportunity to give them another try and add them to my cheese line-up. I was starting over but making progress—they both turned out well. ✓✓
Thus far, my biggest success comes from making feta cheese.
I was intrigued by the additional brining process, since feta’s flavor develops more fully the longer it ages in brine. This small extra step felt like a giant leap into cheese making. ✓
If you happen to read the previous post, Feta Focus, you’ve absorbed a few feta details. Essentially, Greek feta has earned its own provenance: much like a European wine appellation, it must be made with either sheep and/or goat’s milk. I’m keeping it simple at this point, I am happy staying with familiar and readily available: whole cow’s (not ultra-pasteurized) milk.
Feta cheese is fairly simple to make. I used a sous vide with my first batch, which was entirely unnecessary. The second time, I filled my well-scrubbed kitchen sink with 90° hot water, placed the covered milk-filled stainless steel pot into the warm water bath, and stirred occasionally until it reached 86°. That’s when the starter culture and ultimately the rennet are introduced and the curd making process unfolds. I added more regulated hot water as needed to maintain the temperature. Once the curds have formed, the process moves along fairly quickly.
It’s important to allow time for the curds to drain well.
Once draining has slowed significantly and forming a mass, the cheese is placed in molds for shaping and further straining. It’s then briefly placed in a brine solution for a quick rest to stabilize the feta before turning out onto a mat to dry.
The cheese is then returned to the brine for aging and storage. The feta is ready to eat in 4 to 5 days. ✓
Homemade Feta Cheese
1 gallon whole milk (avoid UHT or ultra-pasteurized milk), sheep and/or goat’s milk
1/8 tsp. lipase power, for flavor (diluted in ¼ cup unchlorinated water, let stand 20 minutes)
1/8 tsp. calcium chloride, for curd formation (diluted in 1/4 cup unchlorinated water)
1/4 tsp. mesophilic starter culture, MM100, bacteria to convert lactose to lactic acid
1/2 tsp. liquid rennet, to coagulate milk (diluted in 1/4 cup cool unchlorinated water)
1/4 cup salt for brining/storage
Utensils: Digital thermometer, large stainless steel pot, large spoon & perforated scoop, colander, measuring cup & spoons, curd knife like a boning knife, cheesecloth or butter muslin, 2 perforated molds, sushi mat.
- Warm the milk in a stainless steel pot to 86°F. As milk is heating, stir in the diluted lipase and the diluted calcium chloride.
- When brought to temperature, sprinkle in the starter culture and stir Cover and let milk ripen for 1 hour.
- Add the diluted rennet and stir gently with spoon in an up-and-down motion (not a stirring motion) for several minutes. Cover and let set undisturbed at 86°F for 1 hour until it has gelled, separates from side of pot, and there is a clean break in the curd when sliced with a knife.
- Using a long knife cut the curd at an angle. Turn the pot and slice into 1/2-inch cubes all the way to the bottom. Repeat if necessary. Let rest for 10 minutes.
- Gently stir the curds on and off for 20-30 minutes. As the curds firm and retract, stir more briskly.
- Line a large colander with a double layer of cheesecloth or butter muslin and place a bowl under it to catch the whey. Scoop in the curds and let excess whey drain off 2 hours.
- Once dripping has stopped divide into 2 cheesecloth lined perforated molds and weigh down. Turn often in molds to drain for 4-6 hours, regularly rotating to weight evenly until no more liquid collects.
- To stabilize feta, place the blocks in brine and weight down to keep submerged 1 Tbsp. salt per 1 cup unchlorinated water to cover for 4-5 hours.
- Remove feta to mat, cover loosely with cloth, refrigerate for 1-3 days to drain and air dry. Turn several time daily. Brine can be filtered and reused.
- Return feta to storage brine. Refrigerate 4-5 days, or up to 30 days. Yield: 1 pound.
Dear readers: please be advised that some may find this post objectionable as it skirts the very edgy topic of guns. No, I’m not writing about the latest gun-related tragedy nor is it a rant on gun control. I’m just waxing nostalgic, because guns have not always been defined by mayhem and murder.
I grew up in the mid-part of the 20th century when guns were a big part of our existence. My dad was a marksman, an avid hunter, and was very proud of his gun collection and the many trophies that surrounded us. We belonged to a gun club where we regularly took turns at target practice and skeet shooting. He saw to it that I had my own .22 rifle and later a .410 shotgun; I learned how to care for them, to use them responsibly, and I became a pretty good shot. It never occurred to me that they could be used for violence against another person. At our house, guns were a form of recreation and largely related to delicious food—our freezer was well stocked with bear, deer, quail, pheasant and whatever else was fair game that year.
My mom was an excellent cook and prided herself in knowing how to best prepare whatever game came through the door. Those meals were highly anticipated events and deeply appreciated by everyone. As I think about it now, one of my particular favorites was her Pheasant Cacciatore.
Since pheasant can be quite lean, she would soak the pheasant ahead in an herb and red wine marinade to moisten, tenderize, and remove any potential gaminess. Sometimes she would start with a bit of bacon and then brown off the pheasant. She’d proceed to develop a hearty sauce with plenty of mushrooms, onions, carrot, tomatoes and capers—perhaps she’d throw in a little green pepper, celery, or olives. I suspect she’d combine the pheasant and all the trimmings in a heavy covered pot and gently braise it in a moderately slow oven.
The recipe has long since been lost, but that’s my best recollection. I recently reflected on those fabulous meals while preparing my easy mid-week Chicken Cacciatore.
It is made effortlessly with this Instant Pot treatment, yet it is a distant second to my mom’s ‘classic’ version. When nearly done, mine became a one-pot meal with the addition of a few handfuls of penne pasta! Still, with those flavors and few favorite pieces of plumb chicken, you really can’t go wrong.
Chicken Cacciatore, PC
Although this is presented in Instant Pot format, directions are included for standard stove top preparation, too. If using dry penne pasta on final, more liquid maybe required.
3 tablespoons olive oil
Salt and freshly ground pepper
4 to 6 chicken thighs (bone-in)
1 onion, slice
1 carrot, chop
2 ribs celery, chop
1 pasilla pepper, seed and chop
1 teaspoon fennel seeds
1 teaspoon fresh rosemary, mince
½ teaspoon thyme leaves
¼ teaspoon red pepper flakes
½ pound mushrooms, trim and slice
2 large garlic cloves, minced
1 cup chicken stock, water or other liquid
1 28-ounce can chopped tomatoes with juice
2 tablespoons capers
2 cups approximate, dry penne pasta
Garnish: ½ cup parsley and 3/4 cup Parmesan cheese
- If using an Instant Pot, set it medium Sauté, and heat 2 tbsp. oil. Pat the chicken dry, season with salt and pepper, and place in the hot pot. Brown 4-5 minutes per side and remove to a holding plate. Pour off excess fat.
- Add the remaining tablespoon oil and sauté the onion until soft. Add the carrot, celery, pepper, the fennel, rosemary, thyme and red pepper flakes, and cook 4-5 minutes.
- Add the mushrooms, garlic and a pinch of salt and pepper to the pot. Stir to loosen the fond in bottom of pan with the liquid released from the mushrooms. Increase to medium if necessary, cook 6 to 8 minutes.
- Stir in 1 cup chicken stock or water, the tomatoes and the capers.
- Return the chicken to the pot, nestle the pieces into the tomato mixture to barely cover them and bring to a simmer.
- Lock the lid, set pot to high Pressure for 12 minutes. (If using standard stovetop preparation, cook for 30 to 40 minutes, until the chicken is tender.) When time is up, turn off the pot, disconnect, and let rest 10 minutes. Carefully release any remaining pressure and open.
- There should be enough liquid in the pot to also cook the penne pasta. Set the pot to medium Sauté and bring back to a simmer. Add 1 handful of pasta per serving (about 2 cups) and simmer for 10 minutes, until al dente. Adjust seasoning and dust with fresh parsley and Parmesan cheese. Serves 4
The tomato crop is just about over and done with for this highly productive year. Markets everywhere were awash with heavy, ripe tomatoes. Across the street, my wonderful neighbor had such a bumper crop on her hands that she kept a steady stream coming, in hopes I would use more.
Nothing says summer like sweet, juicy tomatoes fresh off the vine. They were everywhere this year and they went into everything!
One noteworthy success worth sharing came by way of an outstanding homemade fermented salsa, which started out as a fairly basic version. Earlier, I had tested a batch of fermented baby cucumbers and hot peppers, and they were crazy good. The cukes were reminiscent of old fashioned half-sours. Well, why not salsa?
The ferment process is fairly intuitive; there is no cooking required, just a scrupulously clean work space and tools. All it takes is a little time and salt to transform vegetables into a new realm of complex flavor and nutrients. The salt acts as a natural preserving agent while tiny microbes busily gobble up the sugar and transform it into lactic acid—which in turn serves as a natural preservative. It’s a happy environment for beneficial bacteria to flourish, to keep harmful bacterial in check, and to become rich in probiotics.
There are a few simple tricks that will help ensure proper fermentation and prevent the risk of food-borne illness. As with all pickles, the vegetables need to be kept completely submerged below the surface of the liquid solution.
C02 builds up during fermentation and those bubbles need to go somewhere. I started out with the jar loosely covered with cheesecloth and lid, set in a small bowl for run-off, and knew I could do better.
I found a handy fermentation lid that works like a charm and I’ve since learned there are many similar devices on the market.
Once a mason-type jar is properly filled, the lid is screwed on and water is poured into the well on top which creates a vapor lock. A small cap is then placed over a center vent which allows pressure to release safely.
When the salsa is prepared and in the jar, it’s a simple matter of topping it off with brine to secure it all. It is left to ferment on the counter for 2-5 days or longer, depending on the temperature of the room. The warmer it is, the quicker the process.
As it ferments the salsa mellows and develops robust but nuanced character; the harsh saltiness shifts into an intriguing, pleasantly sour taste. The longer the salsa ferments, the more pronounced the flavor. Once achieved, enjoy the salsa as is or refrigerate for longer storage. It will hold for several months.
Likely it won’t last that long, though.
Naturally Fermented Salsa
1 cup onion, dice
3 cups tomatoes, seed & dice
1 cup mixed peppers, seed & dice (serrano, jalapeno, pasilla are good)
2 cloves garlic, mince
Handful of fresh cilantro
Lime juice to taste (start with ½ lime)
1 teaspoon salt
Brine ratio: 1-2 teaspoons salt to 1/4 cup water
- Mix together all the ingredients including the salt.
- Place the salsa in a 1 quart mason jar, pressing down to release some liquid. The vegetables should be submerged under the liquid. Place a lid or other weight to submerge the salsa. Finish with a bit of extra brine if needed and top off throughout fermentation process.
- Ferment for 2+ days at room temperature (mine took 5 days, then sat in fridge 4 more days before using).
- When the fermentation period is complete, the salsa is ready to eat or can be stored in the refrigerator for several months. Yield: about 1 quart
There was a time when the dinner roll was ubiquitous fare with evening meals throughout America. In the early half of the 20th century, most popular was the Parker House roll, that fluffy darling known for its addictive sweetness. The cloverleaf roll and other flavorless knock-offs followed, and by the 70’s and 80’s the dinner roll had morphed into throw-away status, a mere place-holder for the most ravenous.
Before we knew it, our evening bread threatened to drift into obscurity. For those conforming to diets and health regimens, the dinner roll was typically viewed as not worth the carb outlay and restaurateurs were forced to take a serious look at the role bread played on the plate. They recognized the value of bread: it bought time and was an affordable meal extender. On the other side, diners’ palates were becoming more sophisticated. “Either give us something worth eating, or forget about it,” they demanded.
Enter the army of artisan breads. Apparently, the French knew what they were doing with their beloved baguette. It wasn’t long before delightfully innovative loaves had fully captured our attention and claimed a well-deserved place at the table. We made the turn from soft and fluffy dinner rolls to artfully crafted bread—worth eating every crunchy, chewy, tangy bite.
Me? I’m somewhere in the middle. I enjoy a slice of crusty bread dipped in flavored olive oil. Currently on my counter? I’ve got my own light, yeasty rolls cooling on a rack; they’re enriched with sweet potato, accented by fresh sage.
Shades of Parker House rolls! These slightly sweet copper-tinged beauties serve a dual purpose: they are both nutritious and delicious. The sweet potato provides a good hit of valuable nutrients like vitamins A, C, manganese, calcium and iron, plus it brings a touch of sweetness and adds fiber for the dough’s structure.
This particular recipe is actually reworked from a gluten-free one by Erin McKenna in her excellent cookbook, Bread & Butter. In my version, the dough is quickly mixed by hand to bring the dry and wet ingredients together. I use instant dry yeast which cuts down on rising time. Best news here, no kneading is required. The scooped dough is dropped onto a baking pan with limited space between the rolls. Within the hour they double in size, ready for the oven where they rise up and support each other to form light pull-apart rolls.
These rolls have real character; they are a match with a simple smear of butter and they can stand up to big flavors. I’ve used them as sliders with sausage, kraut, and spicy mustard.
They are perfect for breakfast with eggs and such. They are just right with minestrone soup, and the dough makes fantastic pizza!
You get the idea, they are dinner rolls worth eating.
Sweet Potato and Sage Rolls
Adapted from Erin McKenna’s Sweet Potato and Sage Pull-Apart Rolls from Bread & Butter
1 tablespoon cornmeal for the baking pan
½ tablespoon butter for baking pan
1-½ cups all-purpose flour
½ cup whole wheat, spelt, or teff flour
2 teaspoons instant dry yeast
¾ teaspoon baking powder
¾ teaspoon salt
1/2 cup sweet potato puree (from 1 small)
1 tablespoon butter
1 cup milk
2 tablespoons agave nectar
1 teaspoon dried sage or 1 tablespoon fresh, mince
- Ahead: Prepare the sweet potato puree: bake 1 small for 6-8 minutes in microwave, turning once half way through. Let cool, scoop out the pulp, mash it well, and reserve ½ cup for puree. Butter the sides of 8×8” or 9×12” baking pan, line the bottom with parchment, sprinkle with cornmeal.
- In medium bowl whisk together flours, instant yeast, baking powder and salt.
- In a 2 cup measure or small bowl, combine the puree, 1 tablespoon butter, milk, agave, sage, and warm for 40-60 seconds in microwave to melt butter and bring it to 110-120°.
- Make a well in the dry and pour in the liquid; with a spatula stir to combine, until it is the consistency of a sticky dough.
- Using a 3-tablespoon ice cream scoop, measure portions into pan with no more than 1/2 inch between each roll on the pan. Cover the pan with a towel and let the rolls rise until light, 45-60 minutes.
- Preheat the oven to 400°F. Bake the rolls for about 16 minutes–half way through rotate the pan. Bake until golden and a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean. Let the rolls cool on rack for 10 minutes before unmolding. Yield: 9-12 rolls.
Ever need a flat bread or cracker with character to fill in as a snack with drinks or as an alternative bite with soup or salad? This one is even gluten-free.
Socca is a fascinating chickpea based ‘crepe’ popular in the south of France. In northern Italy, Farinata is a variation sold along-side pizza and focaccia. No shaping or patting required, Socca is a simple batter built on chickpea flour, salt, water, and a bit of olive oil.
If time permits, let the batter rest overnight for it to relax and thicken. The flavor and texture will improve, resulting in a creamy interior and crisp exterior texture. When ready, spread it into a pizza pan and bake in hot oven to set. Remove briefly, add toppings, and return to finish.
As you can imagine, this chickpea treat is full-flavored and needs little more than a light topping of olive oil, a sprinkling of sea salt, fresh herbs, perhaps a few olives for embellishment… Rosemary is one such herb that is assertive enough to do well here.
Or, if you are feeling adventurous, try Zhoug Sauce , a highly addictive condiment from Yemen made with cilantro, jalapeno peppers, chile flakes, garlic, cardamom, and cumin seed. I was lucky enough to discover the sauce at Trader Joe’s recently and it was a big hit on a recent Socca batch. Be prepared, Zhoug packs quite a punch. I liked it so much, I even added feta cheese. So much for keeping it simple.
Inspired by King Arthur Flour, Socca
3 cups chickpea flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 1/3 cups water
2 tablespoons olive oil, more for the pan
½ cup olive oil or sauce of choice
3 tablespoons fresh rosemary, chopped
3/4 cup pitted and sliced Greek olives
1 cup feta cheese (optional)
- Whisk the flour and salt together in a bowl. Add the water and olive oil and whisk until smooth. Cover and let the batter rest at room temperature for at least 2 hours, or overnight.
- Preheat oven to 450°F. Spread 9” pizza pan liberally with olive oil. . Place the pan in the oven to preheat for 5 minutes.
- Carefully remove the pan from the oven and pour in the batter, spreading to edges in an even layer. Bake for 7 minutes and remove from the oven.
- Lightly spread top with olive oil, fresh herbs or sauce of choice. Add feta cheese if desired, and return to oven for 7 minutes longer until the surface takes on color and browns. If the top doesn’t brown, turn the oven from bake to broil until crisp and blistered.
- Remove from the oven, cool for 5 minutes, then cut into wedges to serve warm. The top and bottom should be crisp, and the center creamy and moist.
- Store, covered, in the refrigerator for up to a week. Reheat in a preheated 400°F oven for 10 minutes before serving. Yield: 3 – 9” rounds cut into portions.